Automotive Extrusions with Improved Strength and Ductility
Plenary Speaker: Nick Parson – Senior Scientist, Rio Tinto Aluminium
The trend for increased light-weighting in the automotive market represents a growth opportunity for aluminum sheet, castings, forgings and extrusions. The latter are particularly suitable for applications such as crash structures including bumpers, crash rails and side sills along with structural body components. The successful performance of an extruded product relies on the combination of the profile shape and the underlying material properties. Thin wall multi void profiles are widely used to provide stiffness and increase energy absorption in axial or lateral crush through the formation of multiple plastic hinges which impose large strains on the material. In addition, many profiles are cold formed prior to final assembly by bending or hydroforming. Joining techniques such as self-piercing rivets also require a minimum level of ductility to avoid cracking. Therefore, from a material perspective, extruded profiles have to exhibit good ductility combined with high strength to permit down-gauging and structure weight reduction while at the same time maintaining sufficient extrudability to allow the profiles to be produced at economical rates. In order to assist extrusion billet customers in meeting these challenges, Rio Tinto Aluminium initiated a research and development program in collaboration with external partners including the Universities of British Columbia and Waterloo and the Canadian National Research Council. This presentation, based on the results of that work, will discuss the metallurgical factors contributing towards improved performance of common extrusion alloys in automotive applications.
Role: Plenary Speaker
Rio Tinto Aluminium
Nick Parson –Nick obtained his PhD in Mechanical Metallurgy at Imperial College, University of London UK. He started his career at Alcan’s R&D facility at Banbury in the UK, before moving to Canada in the mid 90s to provide production and customer technical support for Alcan’s expanding extrusion ingot business. He has a worked on a wide range of extrusion related subjects including soft and hard alloy metallurgy, extrusion process development and heat exchanger products. Nick is a regular contributor at industry conferences and has been granted a number of patents on improved extrusion alloys. He is currently Principal Scientist for ingot products at the Rio Tinto Aluminium research center in Saguenay, Quebec and is adjunct professor at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi.
The Growth of Aluminium Auto Body Sheet in the US and the Corresponding Challenge for End of Service Recycling
Plenary Speaker: Laurent B. Chappuis – President, Light Metal Consultants, LLC
Aluminium’s recyclability is well documented; and indeed, Ford has demonstrated how to create an effective closed loop between its manufacturing sites and the mills that produce its aluminium Auto Body Sheet (ABS). In that system, most of the manufacturing scrap can loop several times each year between Ford and the mills, but the major portion of the ABS remains “on-wheels” for many years.
At the end of their service life, vehicles enter a system outside the control of either the mills or the vehicle manufacturers. Not only does it happen over a vast geographic area, it takes place randomly over time. Because the aluminium ABS flow has remained modest so far, there has been no need to establish any ABS specific considerations. Driven by Ford’s F-Series trucks and other domestically produced and imported vehicles, this flow will grow exponentially in the next decade. When these aluminium intensive vehicles are scrapped, they will find an industry which is already aggressively recycling aluminium. The roots of aluminium recycling are linked to long existing cast applications, such as engine and transmission components. Therefore, it is no surprise that existing studies are undertaken from a casting perspective. The details of how aluminium ABS is actually incorporated into vehicles are poorly understood, and it is most probable that, without intervention, the upcoming surge of aluminium ABS will probably not be recycled into ABS, and instead will end up down-cycled to other products.
The presentation aims to provide a sketch of the aluminium ABS landscape in the US market from the 1990’s forward, describing the growing volume of aluminium ABS in the scrappage market, with a rough estimate of its growth to 2030. It is part of a journey to assess whether there exists a commercial driver for ABS-specific end-of-service scrappage developments.
Role: Plenary Speaker
Laurent B. Chappuis
Light Metal Consultants, LLC
- MS Mechanical Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland
- MS, Engineering Management, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
- 30 years career at Ford (1986-2016), Lightweight Stampings, principally Stamping CAE & aluminum autobody sheet development :
- 1986-1991: Chair of the Stamping CAE development team
- 1991-2002: Technical Specialist in charge of the development of the aluminum autobody sheet, forming guidelines, alloys and suppliers during the Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) projects and Jaguar XJ.
- 2002-2009: Stamping CAE supervisor, Chair of the Global Stamping CAE team. Developed the methods that are the foundation of Ford’s Stamping CAE today.
- 2009-2016: Technical Specialist for development of aluminum specifications, architect of the prompt recycling loop, launch of the Ford F-150 & F-350 AIV
- 7 patents, multiple technical awards
- Invited Speaker at conferences worldwide, University guest lecturer in Canada and China
- Independent engineering consultant since 2016, with clients in the US, Canada, Europe and China
Aspects of Plasticity and Fracture Under Bending
Plenary Speaker: David J. Lloyd – Aluminum Materials Consultants
Bending is involved in the forming of many sheet parts and it is important to understand the phenomena involved. In this paper the basic equations describing bending on a global scale are compared with strain measurements from bent sheet. The development of strain on a local, microstructural scale is also investigated, as is the general aspects of plasticity and the failure process. It is shown that the global equations can be used to estimate the strains involved and the local strains can be attributed to various aspects of the plasticity. The bendability can be related to the fracture strain of the sheet and the ability of a sheet alloy to accommodate the necessary bending to form the part can be assessed.
Role: Plenary Speaker
David J. Lloyd
Aluminum Materials Consultants
David J Lloyd obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Wales in 1968, and after post-doctoral work at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario and at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, joined Alcan at its Kingston, Ontario Research Center in 1974. Initially working in the area of rapid solidification and metastable alloys, he subsequently developed Alcan’s alloy research in North America on continuously cast alloys, Al-Li alloys, metal matrix composites and automotive alloys. The continuous casting research developed optimum alloys for Alcan’s belt casting process and the metal matrix composite work developed the DURALCAN range of metal matrix composites. As Alcan and subsequently Novelis Principal Scientist he has had global responsibility for various aspects of Alcan’s materials research, both within its research centers and at universities and has spent extended periods of time at Alcan’s overseas operations. His most recent research interest has been in integrating physical and mathematical mode